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Variance of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) concentrations in activated, concentrated platelets from healthy male donors

Justin M Hire1*, J Lee Evanson1, Peter C Johnson1, Steven D Zumbrun2, M Kelly Guyton2, James C McPherson2 and John A Bojescul1

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Dwight D. Eisenhower Army Medical Center, 300 Hospital Road, Fort, Gordon, GA 30905, USA

2 Department of Clinical Investigation, Dwight D. Eisenhower Army Medical Center, 38th Street, 7th Avenue, BLDG 38705, Fort, Gordon, GA 30905, USA

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Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research 2014, 9:29  doi:10.1186/1749-799X-9-29

Published: 26 April 2014



The use of autologous blood concentrates, such as activated, concentrated platelets, in orthopaedic clinical applications has had mixed results. Research on this topic has focused on growth factors and cytokines, with little directed towards matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which are involved in post-wound tissue remodeling.


In this study, the authors measured the levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 (ADAMTS13), in activated platelets derived from blood of healthy, male volunteers (n = 92), 19 to 60 years old. The levels of the natural inhibitors of these proteases, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), TIMP-2 and TIMP-4 were also assessed.


Notably, there was no significant change in concentration with age in four of six targets tested. However, TIMP-2 and TIMP-4 demonstrated a statistically significant increase in concentration for subjects older than 30 years of age compared to those 30 years and younger (P = 0.04 and P = 0.04, respectively).


TIMP-2 and TIMP-4 are global inhibitors of MMPs, including MMP-2 (Gelatinase A). MMP-2 targets native collagens, gelatin and elastin to remodel the extracellular matrix during wound healing. A decreased availability of pharmacologically active MMP-2 may diminish the effectiveness of the use of activated, concentrated platelets from older patients, and may also contribute to longer healing times in this population.

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP); MMP; TIMP; ADAMTS13; Wound healing; Tissue remodeling