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New fluoroscopic imaging technique for investigation of 6DOF knee kinematics during treadmill gait

Guoan Li*, Michal Kozanek, Ali Hosseini, Fang Liu, Samuel K Van de Velde and Harry E Rubash

Author Affiliations

Bioengineering Laboratory, GRJ 1215, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA

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Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research 2009, 4:6  doi:10.1186/1749-799X-4-6

Published: 13 March 2009



This report presents a new imaging technique for non-invasive study of six degrees of freedom (DOF) knee kinematics during treadmill gait.

Materials and methods

A treadmill was integrated into a dual fluoroscopic imaging system (DFIS) to formulate a gait analysis system. To demonstrate the application of the system, a healthy subject walked on the treadmill at four different speeds (1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 MPH) while the DFIS captured the knee motion during three strides under each speed. Characters of knee joint motion were analyzed in 6DOF during the treadmill walking.


The speed of the knee motion was lower than that of the treadmill. Flexion amplitudes increased with increasing walking speed. Motion patterns in other DOF were not affected by increase in walking speed. The motion character was repeatable under each treadmill speed.


The presented technique can be used to accurately measure the 6DOF knee kinematics at normal walking speeds.