Biomechanics and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
Musculoskeletal Research Center, Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research 2006, 1:2 doi:10.1186/1749-799X-1-2Published: 25 September 2006
For years, bioengineers and orthopaedic surgeons have applied the principles of mechanics to gain valuable information about the complex function of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The results of these investigations have provided scientific data for surgeons to improve methods of ACL reconstruction and postoperative rehabilitation. This review paper will present specific examples of how the field of biomechanics has impacted the evolution of ACL research. The anatomy and biomechanics of the ACL as well as the discovery of new tools in ACL-related biomechanical study are first introduced. Some important factors affecting the surgical outcome of ACL reconstruction, including graft selection, tunnel placement, initial graft tension, graft fixation, graft tunnel motion and healing, are then discussed. The scientific basis for the new surgical procedure, i.e., anatomic double bundle ACL reconstruction, designed to regain rotatory stability of the knee, is presented. To conclude, the future role of biomechanics in gaining valuable in-vivo data that can further advance the understanding of the ACL and ACL graft function in order to improve the patient outcome following ACL reconstruction is suggested.